The Birmingham Energy Institute, for example, has world leading programmes on the development of energy storage materials and hydrogen and fuel cells. The university also has a range of collaborative research programmes with business. In all of these, success is not measured by having clever technologies which in isolation are more efficient or cleaner, but new approaches need to be able to function in a system, cost effective and something that the consumer will use.
A key step in the transition from a R&D solution to a product being successfully sold is the development of the manufacturing process. The manufacturing needs to be optimised such that it is cost effective and can produce products with reproducible quality.